Control over nanocrystalization in turbulent flow in the presence of magnetic fields, S. Kobe 2003

« By using a simple hydrodynamical model, it is predicted that there is a strong energy coupling and transfer between the kinetic energy of a turbulent flow and the magnetic field which can be amplified to high values. Since the formation of aragonite is enhanced in the presence of magnetic field, scaling is prevented in turbulent flow ».

« When a conductive fluid moves under the influence of a magnetic field, the flow is modified. On the other hand, energy is transferred from the flow to the magnetic field and backwards, and this complex situation is described by the equations of flow together with the Maxwell’s equations. There is an interaction between the magnetic field and the flow ».

« When the magnetic field interacts with the flow, its energy is dissipated within the flow, and the induced currents tend to diminish the field. On the other hand, it can be shown that when a fluid of sufficient conductivity is in motion, the lines of the magnetic forces are following the lines of flow, and the magnetic field is proportional to the stretching of the lines and therefore, as the lines of the magnetic forces are stretched, the magnetic field is strengthened in time as well ».

« Determination of the amount of calcite, vaterite and aragonite crystals precipitated from the treated water shows the importance of the strength of the applied magnetic field on the quantity of different crystal forms ».

« It was found experimentally that magnetic field enhances the formation of aragonite in the early nano-nucleation stages of crystallization of CaCO3 in water flow systems, reducing thus scaling. The formation of aragonite in the presence of magnetic fields is enhanced when the flow is turbulent. This is due to energy transfer from the turbulent flow to the magnetic field, which is amplified proportional to the change of the kinetic energy of the flow ».

Nanocrystallization of CaCO3 at solid/liquid interfaces in magnetic field : A quantum approach, Kobe, 2008

“A quantum mechanical model predicts that magnetic fluctuations inside the liquid can be amplified by exchanging energy (kinetic & magnetic) with an external magnetic field through the angular momentum of the water molecular rotors and with the macroscopic angular momentum of the turbulent flow. The theoretical model predicts that the gain is higher when the magnetic field is in resonance with the rotational frequencies of the molecular rotors or/and the low frequencies of the turbulent flow and that aragonite concentration is increasing at 0.4 T in agreement with the experimental results. Contrary to calcite, aragonite binds weakly on flow surfaces; and hence the process has significant industrial, environmental and biological impact.”

Proceedings of the second international meeting on antiscale magnetic treatment Cranfield university, 1996

« The magnetic treated device will probably not be effective in scale reduction without a sufficient fast, continuous flow of fluid (mechanical turbulence). This is required to obtain magnetohydrodynamic forces. Also the magnetic field must be oriented at 90° (perpendicular) relative to the direction of fluid flow. Solution must have sufficient conductivity to produce a current ».

Cranfield-University-Study-of-Anti-Scale-MT1, 2006 

« One thing is for sure – there is an interaction between a magnetic field and crystallizing matter which can, on occasions affect its scaling behaviour. These effects were only apparent with a sufficient flow velocity through the field. »

Nucleation and crystallization of CACO3 in applied magnetic fields, Kobe, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2003

« When a conducting fluid moves in the presence of a magnetic field, electric currents are accompany its motion and therefore electric fields are induced on it as the current flows. The magnetic field by itself exerts quite strong forces on those currents, which might considerably modify the flow. Conversely, the currents themselves modify the local magnetic field, and thus a complex interaction between the magnetic field and the flow is taking place. Turbulent motion of a conducting fluid has the remarkable property that it might be accompanied by the growth of spontaneous magnetic fields, which might be quite strong. The presence of very high electric and magnetic fields is inherent in the motion of the fluid and the fluid can exchange energy with the electromagnetic field ».

Effect of an external magnetic field on the structure of liquid water using molecular dynamic simulation, Chang and Weng, department of mechanical engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taïwan, 2006

« It is found that the number of hydrogen bonds increase slightly as the strength of the magnetic field is increased (due to the increased electron delocalization of the hydrogen-bonded molecules). This implies that the structure of water is more stable (enhancement of the connectivity between the water molecules with a tighter bonding) and the ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds is enhanced with larger water clusters ».

« An electric field breaks the hydrogen bond network, while a magnetic field enhances the hydrogen-bonding ability ! » ; « The magnetic field constrains the movement of the water molecules ».

Effects of Magnetic fields on water molecular hydrogen bonds, Hongwai Yang department of environmental science and engineering, Zhou, Tsinghua University Beijing, China, 2009

« effects of magnetic fields on water … decrease of surface tension … the inner structure of water is more stable by magnetic treatment with less molecular energy (= intracluster, 2 to 15 water molecules => smaller water clusters = waterclusters) and more activation energy (new and more hydrogen bonds, formation/breaking of new hydrogen bonds, with larger number of neighbours = inter-molecular/inter-waterclusters = macro-waterclusters) … the average size of water clusters became large, the proportion of free water molécules was reduced  … the rotational motions (of the electrons) got slow down after magnetic treatments (with a strengthening of hydrogen bonds)».

Influence of magnetic field on physical-chemical properties of liquid water, Toledo, departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Brazil, 2008

« a static magnetic field on liquid water will weaken/break the hydrogen bonds intra cluster, forming smaller water cluster with stronger intercluster hydrogen bonds (molecular interactions) ».

Experimental study of the interaction of magnetic fields with flowing water, Hasaani & Hadi, department of physics, college of science, University of Baghdad, 2015

« The absorbance of magnetized water is increased over the UV and near IR regions under flowing water molecules exposed to magnetic fields » ; « A current may be generated within the bulk of magnetized water by the movement of electric charges forming the dipoles … electronic and vibrational transitions exist when water samples are subject to a magnetic field ».

Influence of magnetic field on evaporation rate and surface tension of water, Chibowski, department of physical chemistry university of Lublin Poland, 2018

« Magnetic fields affect the hydrogen bonds of intra-and interclusters of water molecules. »

« Generally, MF can weaken the intra cluster hydrogen bonds, thus reducing their average number between water molecules …. with stronger and more inter-cluster hydrogen bonds … ».

Magnetic treatment of water prevents mineral build-up, Quinn, Purdue University, Fort Wayne USA, 1997

« When a conducting fluid passes down an insulating pipe across which a steady magnetic field is applied, a potential gradient (proportional to the flow rate) is created = electric current to flow ».

Basic Concepts of Magnetic Water Treatment, Moscow State University of Applied Biotechnology, Russian Federation, 2014

« the effect of magnetic field on water affects the structure of water and hydrated ions, as well as the physico-chemical properties (density, surface tension and viscosity) and behavior of dissolved inorganic salts ».

Magnetic Field Application and its Potential in water and waste water, Zaïdi & Sillanpää, department of environmental engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia & Laboratory of green chemistry, Lappeenranta University of technology, Mikkeli, Finland, 2013

« when exposed to a magnetic field of a certain intensity the polar molecules are aligned in accordance with their positive and negative charges in accordance with the magnetic field. The molecules are in an orderly arrangement, causing the particles to coagulate and aggregate ».

« the magnetic field affects the coloidal stability by altering the structure of water molecules and ions either adsorbed on the particle surface or in the medium ».

« A combination of coil magnetization, coils that are magnetized by permanent magnets outside the coil, and the magnetic field, produces magnetic gradients of higher intensity. This causes the flux lines to become considerably close to each other and more concentrated. The flux intensity increases ».

« In addition, the existence of the magnetic gradient and a magnetic field of alternating strength become more effective than a static magnetic field for the aggregation such as CaCO3 ».

« the Lorentz force, which affects the magnetic applications, increases linearly with particle charge, the particle velocity, and the orthogonal vector component of the magnetic field strength ».

« Donaldson proved that the existence of a magnetic field may cause occasional differences in the type of precipitated crystals. The initial ratio of calcite and aragonite was 80:20, but changed to 20:80 after magnetic treatment. This change promoted the precipitation of CaCO3 because aragonite seemed to be more easily precipitated as compared to calcite. Calcite in contrast, is the most thermodynamically stable form at standard temperature and pressure, and is likely to form dense layers that are difficult to be removed mechanically. Under normal conditions, aragonite seed crystals grow very little. When a magnetic field was applied, the aragonite grew significantly ».